Do Vegans need supplements Blog- References

Do Vegans need supplements Blog- References

References:

  1. Dickinson A. The Benefits of Nutritional Supplements, Fourth Edition. Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN). 2012
  2. Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets. Proc Nutr Soc. 2006;65(1):35-41. doi:10.1079/pns2005481
  3. Winston J Craig, Health effects of vegan diets, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 89, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 1627S– 1633S, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736N
  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B12 and contribution to normal neurological and psychological functions (ID 95, 97, 98, 100, 102, 109), contribution to normal homocysteine metabolism (ID 96, 103, 106), maintenance of normal bone (ID 104), maintenance of normal teeth (ID 104), maintenance of normal hair (ID 104), maintenance of normal skin (ID 104),   maintenance of normal nails (ID 104),   reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 108), and cell division (ID 212) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2010;8(10):1756. [ 23 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1756.
  5. Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998. 9, Vitamin B12. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK114302/\
  6. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to normal bone and tooth development pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2014;12(2):3579, 12 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3579
  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to the normal function of the immune system pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2015;13(5):4096, 7 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4096
  8. Top 10 High Vitamin D Foods. Accessed November 12, 2020. https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-vitamin-D-foods.php
  9. Ross AC, Manson JAE, Abrams SA, et al. The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: What clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(1):53-58. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-2704
  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to calcium and growth, development and maintenance of the normal structure and function of bones and teeth (ID 224, 230, 231, 354, 3099), muscle function and neurotransmission (ID 226, 227, 230, 235), blood coagulation (ID 230, 236), energy-yielding metabolism (ID 234), normal function of digestive enzymes (ID 355), and maintenance of a normal blood pressure (ID 225, 385, 1419) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006on request from the European Commission. EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):1210. [27 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1210.
  11. Top 10 Foods Highest in Zinc. Accessed March 18, 2020. https://www.myfooddata.com/articles/high-zinc-foods.php
  12. Wessells KR, Brown KH. Estimating the Global Prevalence of Zinc Deficiency: Results Based on Zinc Availability in National Food Supplies and the Prevalence of Stunting. PLoS One. 2012;7(11). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050568
  13. Maylor EA, Simpson EEA, Secker DL, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation on cognitive function in healthy middle-aged and older adults: the ZENITH study. Br J Nutr. 2006;96(4):752-760. doi:10.1079/BJN20061911
  14. Prasad AS, Mantzoros CS, Beck FWJ, Hess JW, Brewer GJ. Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults. Nutrition. 1996;12(5):344-348. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(96)80058-X
  15. Gammoh NZ, Rink L. Zinc and the immune system. TreatmentUpdate. 2001;13(2):1-2. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-16073-9_8
  16. European Food safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to iron and formation of red blood cells and haemoglobin (ID 374, 2889), oxygen transport (ID 255), contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism (ID 255), reduction of tiredness and fatigue (ID 255, 374, 2889), biotransformation of xenobiotic substances (ID 258), and “activity of heart, liver and muscles” (ID 397) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J. 2010;8(10). doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1740
  17. Petti A, Palmieri B, Vadalà M, Laurino C. Vegetarianism and Veganism: Not Only Benefits but Also Gaps. A review. Prog Nutr. 2017;19(3):229-242. doi:10.23751/pn.v19i3.5229
  18. No Author.Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(6):748-765. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142
  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and brain, eye and nerve development (ID 501, 513, 540), maintenance of normal brain function (ID 497, 501, 510, 513, 519, 521, 53. EFSA J. 2011;9(4):2078. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2078
  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and maintenance of normal cardiac function (ID 504, 506, 516, 527, 538, 703, 1128, 1317, 1324, 1325), maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations (ID 566), maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 506, 516, 703, 1317, 1324), maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 506), maintenance of normal (fasting) blood concentrations of triglycerides (ID 506, 527, 538, 1317, 1324, 1325), maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 527, 538, 1317, 1325, 4689), protection of the skin from photo-oxidative (UV-induced) damage (ID 530), improved absorption of EPA and DHA (ID 522, 523), contribution to the normal function of the immune system by decreasing the levels of eicosanoids, arachidonic acid-derived mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines (ID 520, 2914), and “immunomodulating agent” (4690) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2010;8(10):1796. [32 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1796.
  21. Baker EJ, Miles EA, Burdge GC, Yaqoob P, Calder PC. Metabolism and functional effects of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids in humans. Prog Lipid Res. 2016;64:30-56. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2016.07.002